Surrogacy is when a woman carries a child for another individual or a couple (Intended Parents). There are many reasons why surrogacy may be considered, for example trouble with IVF, premature menopause, serious risk to health that may result from pregnancy, LGBT+ parents.
The intention is that a Parental Order will be made by the court, which results in the surrogate’s legal and parental rights being extinguished. Regardless of genetic relationship, at the time of birth the surrogate is the legal mother of the child.
Straight/Traditional surrogacy is a term that refers to situations where the surrogate is both the genetic mother as well as the woman who carries the child. The pregnancy is achieved by insemination or IVF to create an embryo using the surrogate’s eggs and the sperm of one of the Intended Parents.
Gestational Surrogacy occurs when the surrogate conceives following the planting in her uterus of an embryo created by IVF using an egg from another woman (either a donor or the Intended Mother) and sperm (either from a donor or the Intended Father). The surrogate is not genetically related to the child.
Anyone can decide to consider a surrogacy arrangement whether a straight couple, same sex couple or even an individual. One of the Intended parents must, however, be genetically related to the child.
It is very important to take legal advice before proceeding with a surrogacy arrangement. It has significant legal consequences that may not be able to be undone. A surrogacy agreement is not enforceable in England and Wales. It is a statement of intention entered into prior to conception, setting out all the arrangements agreed, covering the pregnancy, the birth and the intentions after birth.
If you are considering a surrogacy arrangement, it is imperative to obtain specialist advice from the very outset. To make sure you are recognised as your child’s legal parent, providing you with Parental Responsibility, you will need to make an application for a Parental Order through the courts. The consent of the surrogate will be required, although this consent cannot be given within 6 weeks of birth (allowing for a “cooling off period”). The application must also be made within 6 months. Timing is critical. Without the order, you may:
1. Not be able to make decisions about your child’s education or medical care
2. Not be able to travel abroad with the child
3. Face legal complications should you separate from your partner or divorce
4. Face difficulties with issues of inheritance or divorce
5. Need to find and involve the surrogate in future decisions involving your child
Why Hawkins Family Law?
We are a specialist law firm, focusing solely on family law matters, such as surrogacy arrangements. Established in 2001, Hawkins Family Law are all “people” people, and can provide professional legal advice and assistance on all child related matters, including surrogacy arrangements.
By working with our children specialists at Hawkins Family Law, you can be assured of our consistently high levels of support and guidance.
Surrogacy is when a woman carries a baby for someone else who is unable to conceive themselves.
There are many reasons why someone may consider surrogacy. This includes recurrent miscarriages, repeated failure of IVF, premature menopause, serious risk to health that may result from pregnancy, LGBT+ parents and many more.
There are two types of surrogacy. The first is called straight/traditional surrogacy. The surrogate provides her own eggs and the intended father provides his sperm.
The second is host/gestational surrogacy. This is where the surrogate does not provide the egg. The child is created invitro (in a test tube) and transferred to the uterus. This can either be by using the egg of the intended mother and sperm of the intended father. Alternatively, the eggs of a donor can be used and the sperm of the intended father.
The surrogate may or may not be genetically related to the child and cannot be paid more than reasonable expenses to be a surrogate. She is the person who will carry and give birth to the child. Before conception an agreement is reached that a parental order will be made following the birth of the child. She will legally be the child’s mother at birth, regardless of genetic relationship.
There are many organisations that can assist with the surrogacy process. It is always advisable to seek support and advice before embarking on the process. This is not only in relation to the process itself, but also the legal implications.
Practically, there are clinicians, fertility counsellors and non-profit agencies that can help. It is important that the surrogate and the intended parents get to know each other and agree how the surrogacy arrangement is to work. The first step is therefore to enter into a surrogacy agreement. This is not a legally binding document, but rather a statement of intention. It confirms the arrangements, before conception, before birth and after birth. It should include all details about how the conception is to take place, the pregnancy arrangements and should also cover what is agreed should something go wrong.
It is also important to include in the surrogacy agreement as much detail as possible about what payments are to be made and what they are for. It is a criminal offense to pay a surrogate for anything other than reasonable expenses, so it is really important to be very clear about what reasonable expenses are to be made and what the likely treatment and legal costs may be. This can include the surrogate’s loss of earnings.
After the birth of the child, the intended parents will be able to apply to the court for a parental order on form C51. This is the legally binding document that provides the intended parents with parental responsibility for the child – it is very similar to an adoption and severs the surrogates’ parental responsibilities and rights over the child. The application is made to the High Court of the Family Court and is dealt with within the family law jurisdiction. As soon as possible after issuing the application the court must:
- Set a date for directions within four weeks of the application
- Appoint a parental order reporter to act on behalf of the child to safeguard
- Set a date for the hearing of the application
You will also need the agreement of the carrying mother after birth and this can be achieved using a form A101 or in a similar format. This is required from the surrogate mother and any other parent (for example the surrogate’s husband).
Consent is not required from a person that cannot be found. Consent cannot be provided less than six weeks after the birth of the child and the application must be made within 6 months of the child’s birth. So timeframes are really critical.
There are risks to surrogacy. It is important to fully consider and understand those risks prior to choosing to proceed. There is a risk that the surrogate mother may change her mind after birth. There is also a risk that the intended parents change their mind after birth of the child. The relationship between the surrogate and the intended parents could break down and may run into difficulties agreeing about an aspect of care. It is important to get to know each other before reaching any form of agreement.
Surrogacy can be a very emotional time and so it is important that everyone involved feels that they can cope with the emotional demands of a surrogacy relationship. There are also financial implications, whilst it is against the law to pay a surrogate, reasonably expenses for the surrogate and medical expenses can be incurred.
Intended Parents – Becoming the child’s legal parents
These are couples or individuals (married or unmarried) who cannot themselves have children. This includes same sex couples. To be able to apply for a parental order for the child, one party must be genetically related to the child. They will ultimately be responsible and care for the child and will have parental responsibility once the parental order is made.
The intended parents do not have any legal rights until a parental order is sealed by the court. This means that both the surrogate and the intended parents can change their mind prior to the parental order being granted.
Legal Parents at Birth
The woman who gives birth to the child is legally the child’s mother at birth (i.e. the surrogate). The surrogate’s husband or wife will be the other parent unless that person does not give permission. Parenthood is transferred with a parental order.
What happens if the child is born outside of the UK
If the child is born outside of the UK, the intended parents can apply for a parental order if one of them is living within the UK. If the child is not a UK national, they may also need a visa to enter the UK during this process. Using a surrogate abroad can be complicated as different countries have different rules. It is always best to take legal advice in advance.
It is a criminal offence to advertise that you are looking for a surrogate or that you want to act as a surrogate. It is also a criminal offence for third parties to advertise that they can facilitate surrogacy (there are some exceptions to non-profit organisations). It is a criminal offence to negotiate surrogacy for payment. It is only reasonable expenses and medical bills that can be paid.
It is very important for the intended parents to have a parental order. At Hawkins Family Law, we can guide you through this process. Without this order, the intended parents may not be the child’s legal parents unless parenthood is obtained through adoption. This means that they may:
- Not have the authority to make decisions about their child’s education or medical care
- Not be able to travel abroad with the child
- Face legal complications should they separate or divorce
- Face difficulties with issues of inheritance or divorce
- Need to find and involved the surrogate in future decisions involving their child